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FAQs on Clinical Eye Tests

A comprehensive eye examination is performed by an optometrist, part of the important of eye care examination is to detect eye diseases like glaucoma, cataract, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Other eye disorders like dry eyes can be detected by optometrist.

Please refer to the table below for the Frequency of Eye Examination for Patients by Optometrist or Ophthalmologist.

*Patients at risk include

  1. those with diabetes, hypertension, or a personal/family history of ocular disease (eg, glaucoma, macular degeneration) or with clinical findings that increase their potential risk;
  2. those working in occupations that are highly demanding and visually hazardous (eg. workers in electronic and jewellery manufacturing, those handling laser equipment, etc);
  3. those taking medication with ocular side effects;
  4. those wearing contact lenses.

As stated in the Code of Professional Conduct under the Optometrist and Opticians Board.

If you wear contact lenses, ask your optometrist if you need to remove contact lenses and for how long before the eye examination. If you are wearing eye glasses, bring along the latest pair of eye glasses.

Optometrist needs around an hour to perform a comprehensive eye examination. It is advisable to make an appointment with your optometrist before the eye examination.

No risk is involved as all the eye examinations are non invasive.

A comprehensive eye examination will charge at only SGD $150.

Here are the eye care tests include in comprehensive eye examination:

Non Contact Tonometry

A non contact tonometry or “air puff” tonometry is a non invasive eye care instrument to test the pressure inside your eye, called intraocular pressure (IOP).

The eye care diagnostic tool is used to check for glaucoma, an eye disease that can cause blindness by damaging the eye nerve, called optic nerve at the back of the eye. Damage to the optic nerve may be caused by improper drainage of fluid in the eye.

Tonometry measures IOP by recording the resistance of your eye to pressure that is released from air puff. Our eye care centre utilises non invasive eye care tonometry, so no eye drop for anaesthesia is needed.

Corneal Topography

Corneal topography is a computerised eye care diagnostic tool that creates a three-dimensional map of the surface curvature of the cornea. The cornea is responsible for about 70 percent of the focusing power of the eye. An eye with normal vision has an evenly rounded cornea. If the cornea is irregular due to high astigmatism or visual distortion, corneal topography will be the best eye care tool to detect especially cornea eye disease like keratoconus.

A-Scan Biometry

A-scan ultrasound biometry, commonly referred to as an A-scan, is routine type of eye care diagnostic test used by optometrist or ophthalmologist. The A-scan provides data on the eye length called axial length. Our eye care centre utilises A-scan ultrasound biometry to monitor elongation of children’s eye length for myopia control.

Digital Slit Lamp Photography

Slit lamp photography allows optometrist to observe the living tissue of our eyes under magnification. Our eye care centre utilises slit lamp photography as part of clinical documentation for any abnormalities of the eye, for example cataract and dry eyes.

Digital Retinal Photography

Digital retinal photography uses high-resolution eye imaging systems to take pictures of the inside of your eye, that is retina. Optometrist in our eye care centre will assess the health of your retina and helps them to detect and manage such eye and health conditions as glaucoma, diabetes, and macular degeneration. The early findings of disorders in retina is critical to potentially preventing serious eye disease progression and even vision loss.

Here are just some of the eye diseases retinal photography can detect:

Age-related Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is caused by leaking of fluid or bleeding in the back of the eye, that leads to central eye vision loss.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes can cause changes in that back of eye, that is retina. Swelling and leakage of the blood vessels, or even new blood vessels can lead to blindness without early eye detection.


Pressure against the optic nerve and compression of the blood vessels of the eye may indicate glaucoma. Glaucoma is an eye disease causes permanent and irreversible vision loss.

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Signs of high blood pressure often appear first in the back of the eye, that is retina. Indicators include narrowing of the blood vessels, spots on the retina, or bleeding in the back of the eye.

Retinal Detachment

Retina can be lifted or pulled away from the wall of the eye. Retinal detachment will cause permanent vision loss if not referred and treated promptlty.

Optical Coherence Tomography

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive eye diagnostic tool that provides an in vivo cross sectional view of the back of the eye, that is retina. OCT allows optometrist to view a cross-sectional map of the retina, that is useful in the diagnosis to detect eye disease related to retina.

In general, OCT can be particularly helpful in diagnosing macular lesions:

  • macular hole
  • macular pucker ( also called an epiretinal membrane)
  • vitreomacular traction
  • macular edema
  • detachments of the neurosensory retina and retinal pigment epithelium (e.g. central serous retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration)

Eye Refraction

Eye refraction test is an eye exam that measures a prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses of the patient. Eye refraction is performed by an optometrist. Your optometrist may suggest a comprehensive eye examination if eye refraction is not achievable.

A comprehensive eye examination is essential if you have family eye history of:

  • glaucoma
  • diabetes
  • hypertension


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